Thursday, October 12, 2017

THE 60 METER BAND

The 60 meter band
Updated 21st January 2017 by G3PSM, 23rd January 2017 by DK4VW
Status of 5.3 MHz band In Region 1
Andorra
Andorra’s previous 60m allocation 5275-5450 kHz was withdrawn last fall after WRC-15.
Starting with 2017 Andorra got a new allocation of 5351.5-5366.5 kHz with a maximum power of 15 W EIRP.
Bahrain
Bahrain has a channelized secondary allocation for all General Class (A9) licensees. The centre frequencies 5373 kHz and 5405 kHz are assigned on a non-interference basis for propagation experiments. Maximum bandwidth 3 kHz. Maximum mean power 27dbW (500W). The corresponding Upper Sideband (USB) voice 'dial' frequencies are 5371.5 kHz and 5403.5 kHz.
Belarus
On 16 July 2016 secondary allocation of the WRC-15 band (5351.5 - 5366.5 kHz) for holders of licence class A, all modes allowed (CW,SSB, Digital) with max. TX output of 50 W. (info EU1M) 
Belgium
Allocated 5351.5 - 5366.5 kHz from 1st March 2016 in line with WRC-15 decision.   All modes with a maximum 15 Watts EIRP. (Source BIPT)
Croatia
Croatia issues experimental licences for both VFO based and channelized operations in the band 5260-5410 kHz all mode (June 2010) The individual experimental licenses are yearly renewable. All modes are permitted. The Croatian amateur radio emergency service, HRSVKS, operates a 24/7 HF Pactor and ALE system (PCALE) which includes the frequencies 5260, 5371.5 and 5403.5 kHz. (Source: 9A5K Nov 2012)
Czech Republic
Approximately 10 amateurs held an experimental license to operate on 5260 kHz with 3 kHz BW with an ERP output of 100 W. The permission expired on 31 Dec 2011. (Source: OK1MP Nov 2012).
For 2014 ten operators received permits to use 5 MHz. The authorized SSB and CW frequencies are 5288.5, 5330.5, 5366.5, 5371.5, 5398.5 and 5403.5 kHz, with a maximum power of 100 watts ERP. (Source: OK1MP)
For 2015 there are no restrictions on the number of licences for 5 MHz and the number of channels have been increased.   These are now 5276, 5288.5, 5298, 5313, 5330.5, 5333, 5362, 5366.5, 5371.5, 5395, 5398.5 and 5403.5 kHz USB dial reading,  5277.5 5290, 5299.5, 5314.5, 5332, 5334.5,5363.5, 5368, 5373, 5395.6 5400 and 5405 kHz CW. (Source: OK1MP (CRC) and OK1RP)
For 2016 there are no restrictions on the number of licences for 5 MHz and have same channels as in last year: 5276, 5288.5, 5298, 5313, 5330.5,
5333, 5362, 5366.5, 5371.5, 5395, 5398.5 and 5403.5 kHz USB dial reading, 5277.5 5290, 5299.5, 5314.5, 5332, 5334.5,5363.5, 5368, 5373, 5395.6 5400
and 5405 kHz CW with an ERP output max. of 100 W.
Denmark, including Faroe Islands
Danish amateurs can opt for a renewable experimental license for an annual fee of DKR 300 and VFO operate in the band 5250.0 - 5450.0 kHz with 1 kW output, allmode. (updated 4 March 2012). An NVIS beacon OV1BCN operates on 5290.5 kHz. Effective 1 June 2012, the pilot scheme at 5 MHz will cease, and the area from 5250 to 5450 kHz may be used by holders of A and B Certificate with all modulation types with respectively 1000 and 100W maximum output power. Issued trial licenses are valid until expiry.
Finland
Frequencies: 5278.6 / 5288.6 / 5298.6 / 5330.6 / 5346.6 / 5366.6 / 5371.6 / 5398.6
Power: 50 Watts, mode: SSB and narrow band data
Limitations: Notice of Variation for club stations. (Source: OH2BR Nov 2012)
Germany
Since 20 December 2016 (early) access to WRC-15 band (5351.5 - 5366.5 kHz) for class A licence holders, 15 W eirp, all modes, max. bandwidth 2.7 kHz.
Propagation Beacon on 5195 with callsign DRA5
Greece
Greece has a single channel allocation for the RAAG clubstation SZ1SV operating on 5398.5 kHz. This station also operates in beacon mode. (Source: SV1IW Nov 2012)
Hungary
Hungary allows the use of 5318-5321 KHz on a secondary basis within the MOBILE service for emergency communications with NVIS antenna and 100W (source: NAT April 2013 Footnote H23A)
Iceland
Iceland has permitted Icelandic radio amateurs to use the following frequencies in USB and CW mode (USB dial frequencies in parentheses):
5280 (5278.5), 5290 (5288.5), 5332 (5330.5), 5348 (5346.5), 5368 (5366.5), 5373 (5371.5), 5400 (5398.5), 5405 (5403.5) kHz
These are the same frequencies allowed to be used by Norwegian amateur radio club stations. Maximum allowed transmit output power is 200 W. The permission is valid from 1 June 2005 to 31 December 2010. The Icelandic radio amateurs that wish to use 60 m must apply for a special licence from the Icelandic licensing authority. (Source: LA4LN and updated by TF2JB July 2010).
The permission has evolved into a band allocation 5260-5410 kHz for both VFO and channelized operation. The maximum power is 100 Watts (Source; G4MWO April 2012). These arrangements, that originally expired by the end of 2012 have been extended for 2013 and 2014. (source: TF3JB Jan 2013)
The current license period is two years, i.e. from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2016.
We are allowed 150 kHz, i.e. 5260-5410  kHz with VFO, on secondary basis; maximum power is 100W (ERP).
We are allowed  to use J3E (USB), A1A (CW) and 6OH0J2B (PSK-31); maximum transmit bandwidth is 3 kHz.
We need to apply for a special license which is valid for the 2 years. Both license classes, i.e. N and G have the same privileges(Source: TF3JB Feb 2013)
Ireland
Since 22 December 2016 access to WRC-15 band (5351.5 - 5366.5 kHz), all modes with max. 15 W PEP.
With additional authorisation these spot frequencies may be used for special events or for temporary experimental purposes:
5.280 MHz;
5.300 MHz;
5.332 MHz;
5.348MHz;
5.400 MHz and
5.405 MHz
Modes: CW, SSB, PM with max. 200 w PEP.
Reference: Irish ComReg09/45R2  Date: 22nd December 2016
------
Following extensive contact with the military authorities by the Irish Amateur Radio Society (IRTS) it has now been agreed that for an initial period of a year four 3 kHz channels will be allocated to experimenters on a secondary and non interference basis in the 5MHz region. Individual applications will have to be made for permission to operate on these channels. 
The 3 kHz channels are centred on 5280, 5290 (receive only), 5400 and 5405 kHz. The power limit will be 23 dBW (200 watts) to an antenna with not more than 0 dBd gain (e.g. a dipole). The permitted modes will be CW, USB and digital Modes. The USB carrier frequency will be 1.5 kHz on the low frequency side of the channel centre frequencies. Some or all of these channels are also in use in the UK, Iceland, Finland, Norway, Canada and the USA. It should be noted that three beacon stations in the UK operate on the 5290 kHz channel for three minutes in every fifteen minutes. These stations are GB3RAL, GB3WES and GB3ORK Care should be taken to avoid any interference with these propagation beacons. (November 2007)

Israel
In May 2013 the Isreali Ministry of Communications (IMOC) granted the use of 8 channels for General and Extra Class licencees.   These are available on an individual application basis until March 2014 when it is hoped and extension will be agreed.   Permitted power is 100 Watts PEP and channels are 3 kHz bandwidth and are USB dial frequencies.
Permitted channels and modes are
5298.5   CW RTTY PSK SSB (USB)
5330.5   CW SSB (USB)
5357      CW RTTY PSK SSB (USB)
5366.5   CW RTTY PSK SSB (USB)
5371.5   SSB (USB)
5398.5   CW RTTY PSK SSB (USB)
5403.5   CW RTTY PSK SSB (USB)
5407     CW RTTY PSK SSB (USB)
(Source: IARC May 2013)
Norway
5260 - 5410 kHz on secondary basis, all modes (6 kHz max bandwidth) with 100 Watts output.(Source: LA4LN Nov 2012)
Portugal
In June 2011 Anacom assigned 5288.5 kHz in addition to the already authorized frequencies of 5371.5 kHz and 5403.5 kHz on a secondary / non interference basis. The special propagation study permits were originally issued for a year. (Source: CT1EEB Nov 2012). A further frequency at 5380.5 kHz was granted to run from 4th July 2014 until 30th June 2015 (Source: CT1EEB July 2014)
From 1st October 2016 until 31 December 2016 the WRC-15 band (5351.5 - 5366.5 kHz) was permitted to use. A notice related to the further use is expected from ANACOM. (info CT1EEB)    
Slovenia
From 11 January 2017 access to WRC-15 band (5351.5 - 5366.5 kHz)  with 15 W eirp by special application for temporary usage [90 days].


Somalia
Band allocation 5060 – 5450 kHz, providing for both VFO and Channelized operations.  All modes are allowed and the maximum power permitted is 3 kW on a non-interference basis. Upper Sideband (USB) must be used.
South Africa
In April 2013 the South African regulator ICASA authorised the use of 5250 and 5260 kHz for propagation research purposes. The authorisation is valid for a 8 month period and licences cost 2,900 Rand. (Source: SARL April 2013)> The 5 260 kHz frequency was changed to 5 290 kHz. The authorisation has been extended to 13 December 2015, awaiting a decision from the Council of ICASA to extend it further.
Spain
The Spanish PTT has authorized the use of several frequencies in the 5 MHz (60 m) band from January 1st to June 30th, 2014. The authorized frequencies are 5268, 5295, 5313, 5382, 5430 and 5439 kHz, with a power of 100 W PEP. (Source URE 2 January 2014). This authorisation has now been extended until 30th November 2015. (Source: EA7OP via OK1RP and G4MWO). The access to the spot freqiuencies got withdrawn by the administration.
The WRC-15 band (5351.5 - 5366.5 kHz) was approved for 2016, modes SSB/CW only and 15 watts EIRP.
Since the new national band allocation table is still not approved by the Ministry, where the band will be allocated under a secondary basis, so on December 2016 another temporary period permit was released, granted for the whole year 2017. (info EA7KW).
Slovakia
All OM stations can use the band from 5258.5 to 5261.5 kHz with a maximum ERP power of 100 W ERP. The licences are valid for 1 year from date of issue. (Source: OM3LU Nov 2012)
Sweden
PTS (has now 17 January 2013) started to issue permits for experimental transmitters in the 5MHz band. Presently the following frequencies apply: 5310-5313 kHz, 5320-5323, 5380-5383 kHz and 5390-5393 kHz. Bandwith is limited to 3 kHz independent of type of modulation.
Maximum output power is 100 watt pep. Mobile use is not permitted. Holders of call sign for amateur radio may use their amateur radio call sign. It is permitted to make contact with other permit holders. This operation must respect all other traffic in the band. It is very important not to disturb other traffic.

PTS requires a fee for the administration. The permits are limited in time to 6 months."
From October 2016 the permission for the usage of the four segments (see above) has stopped and was replaced by the access to the WRC-15 band (5351.5  - 5366.5 kHz), but still special permits by PTS for a 6 month periode are needed.

United Kingdom
Frequencies (USB voice dial freqs): 5258.5 / 5278.5 / 5288.5 / 5366.5/5371.5/5398.5 / 5403.5 on a secondary NIB. (Until 31st December 2012)
Power: 200 Watts ERP
Limitations: Notice of Variation
From 1st January 2013 - (USB dial frequencies)
5258.5-5264, 5276-5284, 5288.5-5292, 5298-5307, 5313-5323, 5333-5338, 5354-5358, 5362-5374.5, 5378-5382, 5395-5401.5, 5403.5-5406.5 kHz
Power: 200W EiRP
Antenna: No higher than 20M above ground level
Maximum bandwidth of any transmission not to exceed 6 kHz
Operation permission by licence Notice of Variation issued by Ofcom on a NIB (Non Interference Basis) to primary users.
(updated by Colin J. Thomas, G3PSM on 12th December 2012)
Attention: Only the segments 5354 - 5358kHz and 5362 - 5366.5kHz are within the WRC-15 band (5351.5 - 5366.5 kHz).

Status of 5 MHz band Outside Region 1
Bangladesh
Band allocation 5250 – 5310 kHz, providing for both VFO and Channelized operations. Allocated to the amateur service on a Secondary, non-interference basis for propagation experiments. All modes are permitted
Barbados
In Barbados, the regulator permits operation from 5250 - 5400 kHz on USB Voice, maximum power 100W PEP ( Source:- The Telecoms Unit of the Barbados Government - Spectrum Management Handbook)



Canada
Prior to a full allocation, since the start of April 2012, Canadian amateurs have been invited to apply for a special interim developmental licence for 5 MHz / 60m, under the VX9 callsign series, by their regulator, Industry Canada (IC). The channels and conditions are identical to the current US 60m allocation. Following from their discussions with Radio Amateurs of Canada (the national society) and the implementation in March of the new FCC 60m Rules in the US, IC will publish a consultation document for radio amateurs in the official Canada Gazette. At the successful conclusion of this consultation period the current 60m allocation will be made generally available as part of the requisite Canadian amateur radio licences. In the meantime, the above offer of an interim special developmental licence is meant to provide for early access to the 60m channels available. Prior to this, 5 MHz/60m activity from Canada had been on a special permission, limited-time basis on specified frequencies. This had originated as early as 2003.
Industry Canada will allow amateur radio operators to use the 5332 kHz, 5348 kHz, 5358.5 kHz, 5373 kHz and 5405 kHz frequencies on a no-interference, no-protection basis, 2.8 kHz bandwidth, same modes as U.S., 100W PEP maximum power. (source: VE3QN 22 Jan 14)
Cayman Islands
Channelized operation on centre frequencies 5332.0, 5348.0, 5358.5, 5373.0 and 5405.0 kHz. The corresponding USB voice ‘dial’ frequencies are: 5330.5, 5346.5, 5357.0, 5371.5 and 5403.5 kHz. Maximum bandwidth 2.8 kHz, Maximum Power: 100W PEP ERP referenced to a half-wave dipole. Wide and narrowband datamodes are permitted, designators 2K80J2D (Example: Pactor III or Packet) and 60H0J2B (Example: PSK31) respectively. CW, designator 150HA1A, may also be used. The centre of all CW emissions must coincide with the authorized centre frequencies. Automatic operation is not permitted.
Dominican Republic
Channelized operation, centred on 5260, 5280, 5290, 5368, 5373, 5400 and 5405 kHz on a Secondary, non-interference basis. The corresponding USB voice ‘dial’ frequencies are as follows: 5258.5, 5278.5, 5288.5, 5366.5, 5371.5, 5398.5 and 5403.5 kHz. CW is also permitted.
Greenland
Greenland allows channelized operation on 5258.5, 5278.5, 5288.5, 5366.5, 5371.5, 5398.5 and 5403.5 kHz. USB voice, CW and Datamodes are permitted.
Grenada
Band allocation 5250 – 5450 kHz, providing for both VFO and Channelized operations. Their General licensees are permitted up to 500W p.e.p. and Advanced licensees 1 kW p.e.p. Modes include SSB and CW.
New Zealand
Frequencies: 5320 and 5394 kHz USB Internal AR Emercomms- AREC* assist (NZ SAR services). *AREC = New Zealand’s Amateur Radio Emergency Corps. More information at http://www.nzart.org.nz/council/policies/2009-access-to-5-mhz/ (Updated: G3PSM Nov 2012)
St. Lucia
Channelized operation on centre frequencies 5332.0, 5348.0, 5358.5, 5373.0 and 5405.0 kHz. The corresponding USB voice ‘dial’ frequencies are: 5330.5, 5346.5, 5357.0, 5371.5 and 5403.5 kHz. Maximum bandwidth 2.8 kHz, Maximum Power: 100W PEP ERP referenced to a half-wave dipole. Wide and narrowband datamodes are permitted, designators 2K80J2D (Example: Pactor III or Packet) and 60H0J2B (Example: PSK31) respectively. CW, designator 150HA1A, may also be used. The centre of all CW emissions must coincide with the authorized centre frequencies. Automatic operation is not permitted. (source St. Lucia NRTC).
Trinidad and Tobago
The band 5.250 to 5.450 MHz is allocated on a secondary basis to the Amateur service. Maximum output power 1.5KW (source 9Y4NED Nov 2012)
USA and dependencies
Frequencies: 5330.5 / 5346.5 / 5357/ 5371.5 / 5403.5
Power: 100 Watts ERP with 0 dBd antenna (Updated: G3PSM Nov 2012)



WORLD RADIOCOMMUNICATION CONFERANCE APPROVES GLOBAL 60 METER ALLOCATION

World Radiocommunication Conference Approves Global 60 Meter Allocation!

The Plenary Meeting of the 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15) in Geneva has approved an allocation of 5351.5-5366.5 kHz to the Amateur Service on a secondary basis, with a power limit of 15 W effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP).

The November 18 decision on Agenda Item 1.4 was adopted on two back-to-back readings. Some Region 2 countries — but not the US — will be permitted up to 25 W EIRP.

With this action, and despite conditions that are more restrictive than had been hoped at the start of the Conference, the Amateur Service has obtained its first new global HF allocation since 1979. 

While the Final Acts of the conference are expected to take effect on January 1, 2017, the new band will not become available to amateurs until their national telecommunications administration amends its rules and licensing conditions.

Those administrations that already permit amateurs to operate in the 5 MHz range under certain conditions and on a not-to-interfere basis, including the FCC, will be considering whether, how, and when to modify those arrangements in light of the international allocation.

The 60 meter band or 5 MHz band is a relatively new amateur radio allocation, first introduced in 2002, that was originally only available in a few countries, such as the United StatesUnited KingdomNorwayFinlandDenmarkIreland and Iceland. Over a number of years however, an increasing proportion of countries' telecommunications administrations - together with their government and military users - have permitted Amateur Radio operation in the 5 MHz area on a short or longer term basis, ranging from discrete channels to a frequency band allocation.

At the closing meeting of the 2015 ITU World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15) on 27 November 2015, amongst the Final Acts signed into the International Radio Regulations was one approving A Worldwide Frequency Allocation of 5351.5–5366.5 kHz to the Amateur Service on a secondary basis.[1][2] The ITU's enhanced band allocation limits most amateurs to 15 watts effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP), with some countries allowed up to 25 W EIRP.[1][2] The ITU allocation came into effect January 1, 2017,[2] after which each country's national administration must formally revise their rules to permit amateur operation.

Prior to WRC-15, all 5 MHz Amateur allocations made by individual administrations were in accordance with Article 4.4 of the ITU Radio Regulations, which requires non-interference with other radio services. Where two-way amateur radio communication is authorized on 60 m, it has generally been within the frequency range 5250–5450 kHz, but the whole of this range is not necessarily available and allocations vary significantly from country-to-country. This has been particularly true in latter years since the award at WRC-12 of the range 5250–5275 kHz to the Radiolocation Service, thus effectively reducing the former frequency range down to 5275–5450 kHz.


In a number of countries the allocation is still channelized at present, whereas others have block or band allocations or a mixture. Voice operation is generally in upper sideband (USB) mode to facilitate inter-communication by non-amateur service users if necessary. In the United States and its Dependencies, channelized USB is mandatory. Where channelization is used, the USB suppressed carrier frequency (a.k.a. 'dial' frequency) is normally 1.5 kHz below the quoted channel frequency. For example, 5403.5 kHz is the 'dial' frequency for the channel centered on 5405 kHz. The "center" of the channel is based on the assumption that the bandwidth of SSB transmissions are 3 kHz, at most. Transmitters that are capable of wider SSB bandwidths should be adjusted for 3 kHz bandwidth or less so their emissions stay within the allocated channel.

Saturday, September 17, 2016

THE RST REPORT FOR RADIO HAMS'

The RST Reporting System

While roaming around the upper part of the 40 meter Ham Band in the LSB MODE, I recently overheard a conversation between a roundtable group. I listened for a few moments and then heard one of the Hams who was most likely new to Ham Radio, ask one of the others in the group to give him a signal report.

The report he got back from the other station was, "You're 59".  Silence was heard for a few moments and then the "new" ham said, "I did not want you to guess my age....how do you hear me?

The reply was again, "You're 59".  "What do you mean?" The new Ham said.
Then another station in the roundtable began a very lengthy dissertation to try to explain the RST reporting method to him that no one could have understood.

He started talking about power levels, dB's, S meters, propagation, antenna theory, brand names, receiver sensitivity and on and on for a good five minutes! When the new ham started to ask questions, another station spoke up and totally confused the situation even more! Then another station started with his 'two cents" worth. 

After a couple more questions with no clear answers......The new ham finally said "I still don't understand how well you are hearing me.....I hear the phone ringing....got to go!", and he signed off. He sounded very disgusted to me when he left the air abruptly!
In my opinion, in answering his question...."How do you hear me?"....it would have been much better in this case to just say "loud and clear" since the new ham had obviously not studied the RST system of signal reporting and none of the roundtable station operators could explain RST to him in simple terms....they just seemed to want to dazzle him with as much "info" as possible! It seemed to me that they were trying to help in their own way, but did not want to admit their lack of a "good" explaination. They could have suggested that he study the RST reporting system on the internet or wherever he could find the information.

THE RST REPORTING SYSTEM IN A NUTSHELL!

RST Reports: 
An RST report is a report from a receiving station on the quality and strength of the transmitted signal. Using shorthand in the form of numbers to represent the tone of a CW signal or voice transmission of a transmitting station's signal at the receiving station's location (QTH).
Here is what it means:
R -  Readability - Understanding what is said and how well. On a scale of 1 to 5, the readability of your signal with a "5" being perfect with no difficulty. In other words the ability of the other operator to understand what you are saying. A "1" is unreadable....a "5" is perfectly readable.

S -  Strength - On a scale of 1 to 9, indicates how strong your stations signal is. A "1" is a very faint signal.  A "9" is an extremely strong signal.

T - Used for morse code signal reports. Indicates on a scale of 1 to 9 the quality of the tone of the morse code "dits and dahs".  From a "60 cycle harsh tone" a (1).... To a "very pure tone", a (9).


Example #1 A CW REPORT:

If you got a report of "599" on CW, it  means the following:
The five means your signal is very easy to understand with absolutely no difficulty. The first nine means your signal registers a very strong reading on your S meter, usually 3/4 scale or more.  The second nine means your CW tone has a nice pure clear tone or sound.
Example #2 A VOICE REPORT: If you get a 5 5 (sometimes said 5 by 5)....Your signal is perfectly readable with a fairly good signal strength.

In some cases people may tell you: your signal is five nine plus twenty dB... In this case the twenty db part indicates that your signal is so strong that it goes off the standard 1 through 9 signal strength S meter dial by twenty decibels as indicated on the meter readout. (See note below)This would mean that you are putting out a REALLY strong signal!

NOTE:
The RST System of Signal Reporting was established roughly in 1934 as a quick method of reporting Readability, Signal Strength and the Tone of CW. For voice contacts only the "R" and "S" are used. The "S" component is usually not the same as your S-Meter reading as most S-Meters aren't calibrated to track the RST System.The RST is also reported on QSL Cards and must be filled in correctly.

For example a "569" report for a voice contact is NOT valid. Remember that the 3rd number from the left is for "Tone" in CW. Note that many DX operations and contest stations merely report "599" as a convenience to avoid having to log each of the real reports. This is a questionable practice but is used most of the time in DX'ing/Contesting. Would you give a 599 for a station you could barely hear? Would you appreciate it if this was your report from someone that could barely hear you? Be honest with your reports!
The RST report system works well, can be used for troubleshooting problems with your station and has been used by Hams worldwide for many years and also is used by the military with slight modifications in their reporting of transmissions.

There is a great deal of "averaging all factors" when giving a signal report to another station.
There is a lot of difference between a voice report of 59 and one of 52.....but the most important thing to me would be readability! I have heard hundreds of stations perfectly clear on voice and CW that were not moving the S Meter! (Yes...it does work!) So their report might have been an R5, S1 or 2........to my ears!.....

Study this information below to help you with giving out accurate reports.
Feel free to copy any or all of this information if it would be helpful to you!

R = READABILITY
1 -- Unreadable
2 -- Barely readable, occasional words distinguishable
3 -- Readable with considerable difficulty
4 -- Readable with practically no difficulty
5 -- Perfectly readable

S = SIGNAL STRENGTH
1 -- Faint signals, barely perceptible
2 -- Very weak signals
3 -- Weak signals
4 -- Fair signals
5 -- Fairly good signals
6 -- Good signals
7 -- Moderately strong signals
8 -- Strong signals
9 -- Extremely strong signals

T = TONE
1 -- Sixty cycle a.c. or less, very rough and broad
2 -- Very rough a.c. , very harsh and broad
3 -- Rough a.c. tone, rectified but not filtered
4 -- Rough note, some trace of filtering
5 -- Filtered rectified a.c. but strongly ripple-modulated
6 -- Filtered tone, definite trace of ripple modulation
7 -- Near pure tone, trace of ripple modulation
8 -- Near perfect tone, slight trace of modulation

9 -- Perfect tone, no trace of ripple or modulation of any kind

Thursday, August 25, 2016

Kembara ke Tokyo Jepun 18 - 22 Ogos 2016 (Episod II)


Bahagian Kedua

21 Ogos 2016

Awal pagi kami berlepas ke Big Sight …skali lagi kami meneruskan mencari barangan, berasa geram juga dengan barang-barang second hand dan juga Rig yang terpakai penulis teringin dengan "transceiver" saperti TS- 950S dan juga FT- 1000MP yang di jual di sana harga nya pun murah, namun nak bawa balik itu satu masalah kerana pergerakan kami di Jepun hanya bergantung pada Train dan banyak berjalan kaki. Ada subway yang di lengkapi escalator dan yang hanya mempunyai tangga….naik turun tangga ni yang menjadi masalah. Berikut gambar-gambar yang sempat penulis rakamkan.



                                         Kanak-kanak sedang solder project kit ditemani oleh
                                         ibu bapa mereka

Salah satu perkara yang menarik perhatian penulis di satu bahagian kelihatan ramai kanak-kanak yang ditemani oleh ibu bapa asyik menyiapkan projek kit. Mereka ini di temani oleh ibu bapa mereka
dan di bantu oleh Ham-ham yang veteren. Mereka ini sungguh sabar menemani kanak-kanak ini. Penulis juga sempat menemuramah seorang pemuda "ham for Kids" beliau menyatakan di Jepun untuk mengambil ujian RAE tidak ade had umur. Lihat lah bagaimana mereka bermula dengan usia yang amat muda. Jadi tidak hairan lah negara Jepun mempunyai lebih dari 3 Juta pemilik Lesen Radio Amatur. Jepun duduk di tangga teratas dalam populasi Ham di dunia sementara Amerika duduk di tangga kedua iaitu 700,000 penduduk nya mempunyai lesen radio amatur. Thailand pun apa kurangnya mereka mempunyai lebih dari 170,000 Ham di sana.









                                          Kelihatan seorang veteran sambil makan tengah
                                          hari sambil melayan HF nya.......








                                         Ini antara BALUN yang terbaik di temui disini.




Terbaharu YAESU FT-891 yang dilancarkan di sini.


                                         Terbaharu juga YAESU Desk Mic M-1 baru
                                          dilancarkan di sini.


                                         Ini adalah Transceiver Terbaharu Icom IC-7610
                                         yang di lancarkan disini



                                    Communication Receiver yang termahal Icom IC-R9500
           
                                          Terbaharu Communication Receiver Icom IC-R8600
                                          (10kHz - 3 GHz)

                                         Terbaharu Kenwood TH-74 (APRS & D-STAR)





Satelah penat berjalan selepas kami mengunjungi Ham Fest pada petang hari kami terus ke Akihabara dan seterusnya ke Ueno…selepas itu kami terus pulang ke Hotel. Di hotel sambil menunggu untuk mandi penulis  berbual dengan 9W2AEV dalam lebih kurang jam 10.30 kami dapati Hotel yang kami menginap bergegar dan tingkap bilik kami bergegar agak kuat. Beberapa minit kemudian kami dapat tahu ianya adalah Gempa Bumi 6.0  Alhamdulillah kami selamat. Itu lah pengalaman kali pertama penulis….agak kuat juga. 

21 Ogos 2016

Pada pagi hari kami dapat berita berlaku ribut taufan dan airport di tutup pada waktu pagi. Hati kami pada ketika itu berdebar juga kerana hari ini penerbangan kami di jangka pada jam 2245hrs waktu Tokyo.

Pada pagi berkenaan kami hendak keluar untuk membeli belah namun hujan turun dengan lebat bersama angin dan ini menyebakan perjalanan kami agak terjejas, kami keluar agak lewat dalam sekitar jam 11.00am kami terpaksa juga meredah hujan bersama angin. Kami pergi ke Akihabara dan Ueno di Tokyo kami juga sempat solat di Masjid Al Salam berdekatan dengan Akihabara. Kami juga terjumpa sebuah kedai runcit yang menjual makanan Halal yang menarik nya dalam kedai ini ada juga menjual Kari Ayam Ibrahim dan lain lain lagi rasa bangga juga sebab barangan Malaysia ade di jual di Tokyo tambahan pula kilang nya terlatak di Bdr Baru Bangi.

Tips dan Panduan Perjalanan Jauh.

Nasihat kepada rakan2 yang hendak berkunjung ke Jepun pastikan anda mempunyai sepasang kasut sukan yang ringan dan fit dan sediakan minyak panas/ cream sudah pasti kaki dan betis anda akan rasa kesakitan kerana banyak berjalan. Dan jangan lupa membawa sedikit ubatan saperti:

1. Ubat deman dan sakit badan Brufen (ibuprofin 600mg)
2. Ubat sakit perut (hyoscine-N-butylbromide 10mg)
3. Untuk tahan cirit-birit Colodium (loperamide hydrochloride capsule 2mg)
4. Ubat Angin Ultracarbon (medicinal charcoal 250mg)
5. Ubat selsema alahan Zyrtec (Certirzine Dihydrochloride10mg)
6. Cream untuk "muscular aches and pains" Flanil Analgesic Cream dan seumpamanya.

Sediakan juga senarai check list utk barangan utk di bawa bersama yang penting "Pasport"
anda harus berada dalam kocek seluar anda kerana di kuatiri jika anda taruhkan di dalam beg galas anda mungkin ianya tertinggal/tercicir atau di kuatiri di curi. Dan sediakan dokumen perjalanan anda. Dalam satu plastic holder. Dan jangan lupa belilah insurance perjalanan mana lah tau anda sakit dan di masuk kan ke hospital. Dan pastikan satu salinan Insurance tersebut di berikan pada ahli keluarga terdekat. Sebab perbelanjaan perubatan sangat mahal di sesetengah negara. Dan jika berlaku kelewatan penerbangan lebih dari lapan jam anda boleh buat tuntutan. jika begasi anda hilang anda juga boleh buat tuntutan dll Sediakan juga number balai polis dan keduataan jika berlaku sesuatu anda boleh terus hubungi pihak-pihak berkenaan.

Ubatan di atas sangat penting semasa hari ketiga kami di Tokyo seorang sahabat kami mengadu  sakit perut, penulis kemudian menghulurkan ubat kepada beliau. Alhamdulillah beberapa ketika sakit perut nya hilang. 

Kedai yang jual makanan halal di sana amat kurang jadi anda di nasihatkan beli yang sudah siap saperti Makanan yang segera "Ibrahim" anda tak perlulah bawa "Nasi Baryani Ibrahim" Nasi Goreng Kapung dll sebab nasi yg siap di masak dan di pack ade disana anda boleh membeli kebab di Ueno dan Akihabara, anda juga boleh ke 7E , Family Mart untuk dapat  roti  dan nasi yg sudah siap di masak yg di pack dan anda hanya perlu panaskan nya dlm microwave di setiap 7E dan Family Mart ade di sediakan Microwave oven.

Perjalanan kami ke Tokyo kali ini sungguh mencabar dimana ketika kami di Tokyo berlaku gempa bumi dan selepas itu hujan dan ribut berlaku. Akhir kata terima kasih pada Rizal 9M2RZL yang telah membantu kami pergi ke beberapa lokasi di sana. Dan terima kasih juga pada rakan-rakan lain 9W2WF, 9W2TLB dan juga 9W2AEV yang sama-sama menjayakan misi ini. Ketemu lagi di lain kesempatan. 

Jazakallahu khairan....